These are the reference tables provided for the high-stakes physics exam given by the NY Board of Regents. Laboratory safety, style guides and rubrics for laboratory notebooks and formal reports, laboratory equipment, performing experiments.

The purpose of this chapter is to teach skills necessary for designing and carrying out laboratory experiments, recording data, and writing summaries of the experiment in different formats.

lens optics pdf

A description of the scientific method, peer review process, and the difference between a theory and a law. This is an example of how a write-up of a physics experiment in a laboratory notebook might look. Estimating measurements of liquid in graduated cylinders downward meniscus and mercury in thermometers upward meniscus.

Identifying significant figures and rounding results of calculations based on significant figures. Propagating uncertainties through calculations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Introductory experimental design mini-project. Students build a device that mechanically times a 5-second interval. The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize you with mathematical concepts and skills that will be needed in physics.

These topics will be taught, but in a cursory manner. No MA curriculum frameworks are specifically addressed in this chapter. However, this chapter addresses the following mathematical understandings explicitly listed in the MA Curriculum Frameworks as prerequisites for this course:. In addition, this chapter addresses the following mathematical understandings.

Definition and description of vectors vs. Identifying, sketching and calculating the resultant of two vectors. Skills for dealing with variables in physics, including using the units to determine the variables present in a problem and using the set of variables to find a formula that relates them.

Gilbert, Rein V. Central Concept : Newton's laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion of most objects. Kinematicssuch as velocity, acceleration, motion in one dimension, and motion of projectiles. These problems focus more on getting the correct sign for vector quantities. Students roam the hallways in order to demonstrate the difference between distance and displacement.

An experiment involving motion in two dimensions.Lensin opticspiece of glass or other transparent substance that is used to form an image of an object by focusing rays of light from the object.

A lens is a piece of transparent material, usually circular in shape, with two polished surfaces, either or both of which is curved and may be either convex bulging or concave depressed. The curves are almost always spherical; i. A lens has the valuable property of forming images of objects situated in front of it.

Single lenses are used in eyeglassescontact lenses, pocket magnifiers, projection condensers, signal lights, viewfinders, and on simple box cameras. More often a number of lenses made of different materials are combined together as a compound lens in a tube to permit the correction of aberrations.

Compound lenses are used in such instruments as cameras, microscopes, and telescopes. A lens produces its focusing effect because light travels more slowly in the lens than in the surrounding air, so that refractionan abrupt bending, of a light beam occurs both where the beam enters the lens and where it emerges from the lens into the air.

A single lens has two precisely regular opposite surfaces; either both surfaces are curved or one is curved and one is plane. Lenses may be classified according to their two surfaces as biconvex, plano-convex, concavo-convex converging meniscusbiconcave, plano-concave, and convexo-concave diverging meniscus. Because of the curvature of the lens surfaces, different rays of an incident light beam are refracted through different angles, so that an entire beam of parallel rays can be caused to converge on, or to appear to diverge from, a single point.

This point is called the focal pointor principal focus, of the lens often depicted in ray diagrams as F. Refraction of the rays of light reflected from or emitted by an object causes the rays to form a visual image of the object. This image may be either real —photographable or visible on a screen—or virtual —visible only upon looking into the lens, as in a microscope.

The image may be much larger or smaller than the object, depending on the focal length of the lens and on the distance between the lens and the object. The focal length of a lens is the distance from the centre of the lens to the point at which the image of a distant object is formed. A long-focus lens forms a larger image of a distant object, while a short-focus lens forms a small image.

Usually the image formed by a single lens is not good enough for precise work in such fields as astronomy, microscopy, and photography; this is because the cone of rays emitted by a single point in a distant object is not united in a perfect point by the lens but instead forms a small patch of light. To correct such aberrations, it is often necessary to combine in one mount several lens elements single lensessome of which may be convex and some concave, some made of dense high-refractive or high-dispersive glass, and others made of low-refractive or low-dispersive glass.

The lens elements may be cemented together or mounted at carefully calculated separations to correct the aberrations of the individual elements and obtain an image of acceptable sharpness see also aberration. The precise mounting also ensures that all lenses are properly centred; that is, the centres of curvature of all the lens surfaces lie on a single straight line called the principal axis of the lens.

Ray Optics 21 : Silvering Of One Surface Of Lens - Silvered Lens JEE/NEET

A frequently used measure of the quality of any lens system is its ability to form an image that is sharp enough to separate, or resolve, two very close dots or lines in an object. Resolving power depends on how well the various aberrations in a lens system are corrected.

The simplest compound lens is a thin cemented combination of two single lenses, such as that used in the objective the lens nearest the object of a small refracting telescope.

Microscope objectives may contain as many as eight or nine elements, some of which may be made of different materials in order to bring all colours of light to a common focus, and thus prevent chromatic aberration. The objective lenses used in cameras may contain from two to 10 elements, while a so-called zoom or variable-focal length lens may have as many as 18 or 20 elements in several groups, the different groups being movable along the axis by levers or cams in order to produce the desired change in focal length without a shift of the focal plane.

Lenses also vary greatly in diameter, from as small as 0. In reflectors and several other types of astronomical telescopes, concave mirrors are used for the objective instead of lenses.

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Article Media.Office Lens trims, enhances, and makes pictures of whiteboards and docs readable. Office Lens is like having a scanner in your pocket. Like magic, it will digitize notes from whiteboards or blackboards. Always find important documents or business cards.

Sketch your ideas and snap a picture for later. Don't lose receipts or stray sticky notes again! Scenarios: - Capture and crop a picture of a whiteboard or blackboard and share your meeting notes with co-workers. A button or a keyboard shortcut for the import function would be great. There are not much features in the app so the F1-F12 keys would be a perfect choice. This is an app that has made my printer scanner obsolete.

Now every important physical doc that I want to preserve for record can be just converted into an electronic certain due to its awesome OCR.

Also the whiteboard capture feature is awesome Keep up the great work. Use it just about every, note, sketch or design. Share by email or txt, save it to one note. This makes everything easy. I love that I can choose to take pics and have them added only to one note where they are searchable and they don't fill up my camera roll.

Great app, especially now that it has the "save as PDF" option. As far as taking pictures of a whiteboard, this app is the best in our office. I end up taking pictures of all the whiteboards and sending them to everyoneCompany About. Patents and Trademarks. Navitar Mobility. Optotune Liquid Lens. High Mag Zoom and Fixed Lenses. Microscope Objectives. Large Format Lenses. High Speed Lenses. Converter Lenses. Controllers - Motorized.

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Custom Projection Lens Design. Microscopy Cameras. Autofocus Cameras. Optics Manufacturing. OEM Lens Assemblies.

lens optics pdf

IP Generation. Lens-Sensor Active Alignment. Case Studies. Repairs and Returns. Imaging Catalog Catalog Request Form. Log In Sign Up. My Cart. Your Partner in Optical Design. Browse Products. Imaging Solutions. Learn More View Products. Recent News. Navitar lens designs are driven by requirements and applications of our customers. Innovative ideas and unconventional solutions developed by OEM instrument makers and the research community cannot be supported by commercial off-the-shelf microscope objectives.

We support customers pushing the l Read More All News. All Rights Reserved. Terms and Conditions. Privacy Policy. This website uses cookies to store information on your computer.An open-source web application to simulate reflection and refraction of light.

Ray Optics Simulation An open-source web application to simulate reflection and refraction of light.

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Tools Ray A single ray of light defined by two points. Beam A parallel beam of rays emerges from a line-segment, with density controlled by the "Ray density" slider. Point Source Rays emerge from a single point, with number controlled by the "Ray density" slider. Mirror Simulate the reflection of light on a mirror.

Mirror Arc A mirror whose shape is part of a circle, which is defined by three points. The focal length in pixels can be set directly. Glass Simulate the the refraction and reflection of light on a surface.

Office Lens

The intensities are calculated by assuming unpolarized. Glass Circle Glass with circle shape, defind by its center and a point on the surface. Glass Other shapes Glass with any shapes constructed from line segments and circular arcs, including prisms and "spherical" lenses.

Blocker A line-segment light blocker which absorbes the incident rays. Ruler A ruler from a point for zero and another point. The scale is in pixels.

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Protractor A protractor defined from center and another point for the zero direction. The scale is in degrees. Views Rays Show the rays. When the "Ray density" is high, they appears to be continuous. Extended Rays Show both the rays and its extension.

Orange indicates backward extensions, and gray indicates forward ones. All Images Show the position of all images. Yellow points indicate real images, orange indicate virtual images, and gray none in this picture indicate virtual objects.

Note that some images cannot be detected if "Ray density" is not high enough. Seen by observer Simulate the rays and images seen from some position.Shorter focal length lenses provide a wider field of view but offer less magnification.

Conversely, longer focal lengths provide a shorter field of view but provide greater magnification. The focal length of a lens is usually displayed on the lens barrel, along with the size of the adaptor ring.

lens optics pdf

The lower the maximum aperture value will indicate the quality of the lens in terms of brightness. High quality zoom lenses deliver a constant f-stop throughout the focal range i. A lens with a low f-number wide maximum apertureis a better quality lens and allows you to do more with it.

In addition, these bright lenses will enable you to achieve a very shallow depth of field. The standard lens has a fixed focal length 50mm, 85mm, mmand reproduces fairly accurately what the human eye sees — in terms of perspective and angle of view.

For a 35mm film camera or a full-frame DSLR, the 50mm lens is considered standard. At higher focal lengths 85mm or mm you have an ideal lens for portraiture because when coupled with a wide aperture they thoroughly soften any background detail, thus making it less likely to distract from the main subject.

A wide-angle has a shorter focal length 10 thru 42mm when compared to a standard lens. This enables you to capture a comparatively wider angle of view. A wide-angle lens is a natural choice for capturing outdoor landscapes and group portraits. In fact, wide angle can be the only way to capture the complete setting without omitting any important elements in the image. Telephoto lenses mm — mm can provide you with a narrow field of view. These long lenses enable you to compress a distance and compress the sense of depth, as well and pick out specific objects from far off.

They have a strong resolving power and an inherent shallow DOF, where the slightest lateral moment can take a subject out of view. Telephoto lenses are great for wildlife, portrait, sports, and documentary types of photography. Some can range between a wide-angle and a telephoto i.

The trade-off with zoom lenses is the aperture. Because of the number of elements required in constructing these lenses, they have a limited ability to open up and allow in light. A fisheye lens is a specialized, wide-angle lens that provides extremely wide images by changing straight lines into curves. They range in focal lengths of between mm.

Lenses In Optics

These lenses obtain razor-sharp focus for subjects within the macro focus distance, but lose their ability for sharp focus at other distances. These lenses enable the photographer to obtain life-size or larger images of subjects like wasps, butterflies, and flowers. The tilt-shift lens also enables you to selectively focus an image; where only specific portions of the image are in focus and out of focus within the same plane.

These lenses contain small gyro stabilizer sensors and servo-actuated lens elements, which purportedly correct for camera shake that occurs with longer focal length lens or in low-light conditions when you need to have slower shutter speeds to achieve an effective EV. It is claimed that these lenses enable the user to shoot handheld at 2 to 4 stop slower shutter speeds exposure 4 to 16 times longer than the minimum required for a sharp image.

There are many possible lens choices, and all will give you a different and distinct image. Part of the creativity of the photographer is in selecting the right lens to capture the vision of the world the way she or he sees it, or wants to present it. Attila Kun Attila is the founder and editor-in-chief of Exposure Guide.

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